The effects of hospitalisation can also include PICS, which refers to health effects that begin when a person is in an intensive care unit (ICU) and may remain after the person returns home. These effects can include severe weakness, problems with thinking and judgement, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD consists of long-term reactions to a very stressful event. We randomly targeted non-responders (non-responders at both time points) four months after discharge from hospital, i.e., those who did not respond at both time points.
Older adults with diabetes, heart failure or hypertension were more likely to be hospitalised than younger adults with the same condition. Patients without COVID-19 and ICU appear to be at least as affected as patients with COVID-19 and ICU, underlining that pandemic (post)hospital care should not predominantly focus on COVID-19 infected patients. The study used data from the MI-COVID19 initiative, which was quickly developed in April as a way for Michigan hospitals to pool and analyse data on their COVID-19 patients. However, only a few reported a history of mental illness, suggesting that hospitalisation, not pre-existing psychological distress, is related to post-discharge symptomatology.
Furthermore, among the 95 patients with acute kidney injury during hospitalisation, only 2 patients had persistent renal dysfunction. After hospitalisation, 27% (13,309 out of 50.10) of patients were less able to care for themselves than before COVID-19, and this was more common with advancing age, being male, and in people who received critical care. Clinicians need to be aware of the psychological consequences of hospitalisation during a pandemic, and that psychological distress is not only found in those affected by COVID-19 or those requiring ICU treatment. This analysis estimates the costs of providing support to frontline hospital workers and their families, including childcare, accommodation, transport, and COVID-19 detection and treatment.
These conditions may also be compounded by other effects related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including mental health effects due to isolation, negative economic situations and lack of access to medical care for the management of underlying conditions. After admission to hospital, patients suspected of having COVID-19 were strictly isolated, visits were restricted and contact with healthcare staff was limited. The ISARIC database is an international initiative to collect baseline demographic data and treatment-related characteristics of all patients admitted to hospital with respiratory symptoms during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Hospitalisations and severe illness from lung-related diseases, including COVID-19, can cause health effects such as severe weakness and exhaustion during the recovery period.
These people would have remained infected with COVID-19, but would probably not have been sick enough to require hospitalisation. The effect of the virus on daily life was rapid and catastrophic with the advent of strict social distancing practices and orders to stay at home.